A) Rules for any mode of transport
EXW- Ex Works: The seller makes the goods available at their premises on a pre-determined date and notifies the buyer. The buyer receives the goods from the premises, prepares the necessary export documentation, completes the customs procedures and exports the goods to their own country. The buyer bears all the costs and risks related to the goods after their delivery at the premises.
FCA – Free Carrier: Upon completion of customs clearance and delivery of the goods by the seller on the pre-determined date at a named place to the first carrier’s care, the delivery is deemed to have been completed. When this occurs, all costs and risks related to the goods are transferred to the buyer. Freight costs, as all other expenditures, are borne by the buyer.
CPT – Carriage Paid To: The seller is responsible for paying the freight costs up to the named place of destination. Upon delivery of the goods to the first carrier’s care, all risks and costs other than freight are transferred to the buyer.
CIP – Carriage And Insurance Paid To: The seller bears the same responsibilities as CPT. However, in addition, the seller is required to obtain cargo insurance to cover any losses and damages to the goods while in transit.
DAT – Delivered At Terminal: This requires that the goods are made available to the buyer at the named terminal point (this point may be a a port, a customs warehouse or the buyer’s facilities), with unloading costs paid by the seller. All customs clearance procedures, costs, taxes, charges and duties arising from customs are borne by the buyer.
DAP – Delivered At Place: The goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer on the arriving means of transport ready for unloading at the place of unloading to be named by the buyer and the seller (a port, a customs checkpoint or an airport). All customs expenses, procedures, taxes, charges and duties arising from customs are borne by the buyer. The seller bears the carriage expenses up to the agreed destination point/damage risks arising from the terminal.
DDP – Delivered Duty Paid: The seller prepares the goods in accordance with the terms of the agreement, prepares the necessary documentation to be used in their own country or in the Buyer’s country, completes the Export and Import Customs procedures, procures the carrier and pays for the freight costs. All expenses and risks related to the goods up to delivery are borne by the seller. The delivery is made to the buyer’s country at a named place and date, with customs duties and taxes paid. The buyer pays for the cost of goods and receives the goods in accordance with the terms of the agreement.
B) Rules for sea and inland waterway transport
FAS – Free Alongside Ship: The seller’s responsibility for delivery is deemed to have been fulfilled when the goods are placed alongside the vessel at the named port of shipment. The costs for loading, unloading, shipping and insurance of the goods are borne by the buyer.
FOB – Free on Board: The seller loads the goods on board the vessel procured by the buyer on the pre-determined date at the named place. All damages, losses and costs incurred after the goods are passed over the ship’s rail (to the deck) are under the Buyer’s responsibility. The seller prepares all the necessary export documentation, clears the goods for customs and delivers them.
CFR – Cost and Freight: The seller bears all the costs and risks to bring the goods up to the named port of loading, completes the customs procedures, pays for the Freight costs and loads the goods. At that point, all costs and risks related to the goods, with the exception of freight, are deemed to have been transferred to the buyer.
CIF – Cost, Insurance and Freight: The seller pays for the insurance premium, bears all the costs and risks to bring the goods up to the named port of loading. The seller enters into an agreement with the shipping agency and provides for shipment. The seller notifies the buyer that the goods listed in the sales contract are loaded on the pre-determined date at the named place. Bearing the insurance premium costs, the seller provides for the minimum coverage marine transport insurance according to the type of goods subject to shipment. After the goods are loaded into the vessel, all costs and risks related to the goods, with the exception of freight and insurance premium are deemed to have been transferred to the buyer.